Aviation Terminology #2 ( J to R )  


  • Jet: An aircraft with engines capable of flying at or above the speed of sound.

  • Joystick: Also known as the control column, the joystick is the main device in the cockpit for controlling the aircraft. The joystick is usually floor- or roof-mounted.


  • Knot: A unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour.

  • Kph: Kilometers Per Hour.


  • Landing: Accomplished by slowing down and descending to the runway.

  • Landing Gear: The undercarriage of an aircraft or spacecraft and may be used for either takeoff or landing.

  • Lateral Seperation: The lateral spacing of aircraft at the same altitude by requiring operation on different routes or in different geographical locations.

  • Longitudinal Seperation: Is the separation of aircraft following the same course at the same altitude.

  • Log Book: A record of the flights that a pilot makes.

  • Long-range Climb: Is the best method to save fuel during the climb.

  • Long-range Cruise: Is a method that preserve fuel during cruise.

  • Loss of seperation: An event in which two aircraft come too close to one another.

  • Long-range descent: A descent in which the aircraft descends gradually.

  • Landing Configuration: Is the arrengement of an aircraft’s equipment in which the flaps are fully extended, landing gear is down, and the spoiler is retracted.

  • Landing Pattern: Is a rectangular flight path which provides a way for aircraft to transition into an airport’s space and to land smoothly.


  • Magnetic Compass: A compass is a simple magnetic bar suspended in fluid.

  • MULTICOM: A communication frequency used by pilots to communicate their flight intentions when no air traffic control facility or base operator is available.

  • Mph: Miles Per Hour.

  • Maneuver: Controlled moves of aircrafts to change directions.

  • Maintenance: Is a process for avoiding future technical problems of the aircraft.

  • Mechanical Control System: A system in which force is applied directly from the cockpit to controls.

  • Mechanical Circuit: A system which uses a series of basic manual controls.

  • Maximum Takeoff Mass: The maximum weight at which the pilot is allowed to attempt to take off.


  • Nose: The front part of an aircraft.

  • Negative: A proword meaning "No".

  • Nautical Mile: A unit of measurement used in air, marine, and space navigation, and for the definition of territorial waters.

  • Narrow-body airliner: A passenger aircraft with one passenger aisle and a cabin width of 3 to 4 meters.

  • Notification to Airman (NOTAM): A notice filed with an aviation authority to alert aircraft pilots of potential hazards along a flight route or at a location that could affect the safety of the flight.

  • Notification to Captain (NOTOC): A form used to notify the aircraft pilot of loaded cargos and dangerous goods.

  • Nosewheel: A wheel located under the nose of an airplane that is part of the plane's landing gear landing gear.

  • Net Takeoff Flight Path: The vertical profile of an aircraft beyond the take-off point, giving the minimum height that will be attained by an aircraft flown in accordance with the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) following failure of the most critical power unit.

  • Normal High-speed Climb: Is a method to cover more distance during the climb.


  • Overhead Panel: Includes the cabin`s climate controls.

  • Override: Is the name of the process which stops an automatic function.

  • Optimum Altitude: The best aircraft cruise altitude for a given weight and corresponding air temperature.

  • Overspeed Clacker Warnings: Is a warning system which shows that how you’re flying too fast.


  • Pan: A proword indicating urgency.

  • Pitch: Rotation around the side-to-side axis

  • Payload: The commercial load: thus the passengers, baggage, cargo from which revenue is generated.

  • Precipitation: Any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravitational pull from clouds.

  • Preflight: A Word which describes before the aircraft takes off.

  • Pushback: An airport procedure during which an aircraft is pushed backwards away from an airport gate by external power

  • Primary Instrument: An instrument that measures an unchanging factor.


  • Quadraplane: A type of aircraft that has four or more wings of similar spans, also known as quadruplanes.


  • Rudder: A primary control surface used to steer a ship, boat, submarine, hovercraft, aircraft, or other conveyance that moves through a fluid medium (generally air or water).

  • Radio Magnetic Indicator: An electronic navigation instrument that combines a magnetic compass card with two bearing pointers (typically). 

  • Roll: A horizontal flip, refers to the horizontal movement of an aircraft.

  • Restricted: Limited to or admitting only members of a particular group or class.

  • Runway Contamination: The presence of dirt, grease, rubber, or other materials on runway surfaces that adversely affect normal aircraft operation or that chemically attack the pavement surface.

  • Rolling Takeoff: Is the smoothest way to get off the ground or the best way to takeoff.

  • Retraction: The act of taking back an offer or statement, or admitting that a statement was false.

  • Rate of Climb: Is an aircraft's vertical speed.

  • Redundancy: Is the presence of more than one independent means for accomplishing a given function.

  • Range Constant: It is the constant distance calculated by copilot in order to measure fuel efficiency

  • Rate of Descent: The speed at which an aircraft descends.

  • Rapid Depressurizations: Is when (in aircraft so equipped) a pressurized cabin reaches equilibrium with the atmosphere surrounding it.